A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg, Russia (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Zhores Alferov
"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997
Jens C. Skou
"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"

Academy of Sciences, Moscow, USSR (now Russia) (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962
Lev Landau
"for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978
Pyotr Kapitsa
"for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1975
Leonid Vitaliyevich Kantorovich
"for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"

All Souls College, Oxford, United Kingdom (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1972
John R. Hicks
"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"

Amsterdam University, Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902
Pieter Zeeman
"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1910
Johannes Diderik van der Waals
"for his work on the equation of state for gases and liquids"

Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003
Alexei Abrikosov
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA (2)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004
Edward C. Prescott
"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009
Elinor Ostrom
"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"

Asahi Kasei Corporation, Tokyo, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019
Akira Yoshino
"for the development of lithium-ion batteries"

Associated Universities Inc., Washington, DC, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002
Riccardo Giacconi
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, which have led to the discovery of cosmic X-ray sources"

Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berkshire, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951
John Cockcroft
"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

Australian National University, Weston Creek, Australia (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Brian P. Schmidt
"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

Australian National University, Canberra, Australia (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
Sir John Eccles
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

Basel Institute for Immunology, Basel, Switzerland (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984
Niels K. Jerne
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984
Georges J.F. Köhler
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

Basel University, Basel, Switzerland (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Tadeus Reichstein
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009
Willard S. Boyle
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009
George E. Smith
"for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit - the CCD sensor"

Bell Laboratories, Holmdel, NJ, USA (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978
Arno Penzias
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978
Robert Woodrow Wilson
"for their discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018
Arthur Ashkin
"for the optical tweezers and their application to biological systems"

Bell Telephone Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
Walter H. Brattain
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977
Philip W. Anderson
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

Bell Telephone Laboratories, New York, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937
Clinton Davisson
"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

Berlin University, Berlin, Germany (7)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918
Max Planck
"in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933
Erwin Schrödinger
"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1901
Jacobus H. van 't Hoff
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1902
Emil Fischer
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1920
Walther Nernst
"in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936
Peter Debye
"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"

Berne University, Bern, Switzerland (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1909
Theodor Kocher
"for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"

Binghamton University, State University of New York, New York, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019
M. Stanley Whittingham
"for the development of lithium-ion batteries"

Biozentrum der Universität, Basel, Switzerland (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Werner Arber
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

Birmingham University, Birmingham, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937
Norman Haworth
"for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"

Boston University Medical School, Massachusetts, MA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Osamu Shimomura
"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

Brandeis University, Waltham, MA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017
Michael Rosbash
"for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm"

Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990
Joseph E. Murray
"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019
William G. Kaelin Jr
"for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability"

Bristol University, Bristol, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1950
Cecil Powell
"for his development of the photographic method of studying nuclear processes and his discoveries regarding mesons made with this method"

Brown University, Providence, RI, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972
Leon N. Cooper
"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
J. Michael Kosterlitz
"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"

Brussels University, Brussels, Belgium (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1919
Jules Bordet
"for his discoveries relating to immunity"

Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (International Bureau of Weights and Measures), Sèvres, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1920
Charles Edouard Guillaume
"in recognition of the service he has rendered to precision measurements in Physics by his discovery of anomalies in nickel steel alloys"

Calcutta University, Calcutta, India (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1930
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
"for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect named after him"

California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, CA, USA (20)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923
Robert A. Millikan
"for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936
Carl D. Anderson
"for his discovery of the positron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961
Rudolf Mössbauer
"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965
Richard P. Feynman
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969
Murray Gell-Mann
"for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983
William A. Fowler
"for his theoretical and experimental studies of the nuclear reactions of importance in the formation of the chemical elements in the universe"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1954
Linus Pauling
"for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure of complex substances"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1962
Linus Pauling
"for his fight against the nuclear arms race between East and West"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992
Rudolph A. Marcus
"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1999
Ahmed Zewail
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1933
Thomas H. Morgan
"for his discoveries concerning the role played by the chromosome in heredity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
George Beadle
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
Max Delbrück
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Roger W. Sperry
"for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995
Edward B. Lewis
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004
H. David Politzer
"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005
Robert H. Grubbs
"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Barry C. Barish
"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Kip S. Thorne
"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018
Frances H. Arnold
"for the directed evolution of enzymes"

Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Sir Martin J. Evans
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh, PA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943
Otto Stern
"for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"

Carnegie Institution of Washington, Long Island, New York, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
Alfred D. Hershey
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, USA (2)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1978
Herbert Simon
"for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004
Finn E. Kydland
"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

Center for Study of Public Choice, Fairfax, VA, USA (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1986
James M. Buchanan Jr.
"for his development of the contractual and constitutional bases for the theory of economic and political decision-making"

Central Research Laboratories, EMI, London, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

CERN, Geneva, Switzerland (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984
Carlo Rubbia
"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1984
Simon van der Meer
"for their decisive contributions to the large project, which led to the discovery of the field particles W and Z, communicators of weak interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Jack Steinberger
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992
Georges Charpak
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"

China Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015
Tu Youyou
"for her discoveries concerning a novel therapy against Malaria"

Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009
Charles K. Kao
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

City University of New York, New York, NY, USA (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1990
Harry M. Markowitz
"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

Clare Hall Laboratory, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Tomas Lindahl
"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1983
Barbara McClintock
"for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"

Collège de France, Paris, France (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1991
Pierre-Gilles de Gennes
"for discovering that methods developed for studying order phenomena in simple systems can be generalized to more complex forms of matter, in particular to liquid crystals and polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Jean-Marie Lehn
"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012
Serge Haroche
"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

Cologne University, Cologne, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950
Kurt Alder
"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

Columbia University, New York, NY, USA (17)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944
Isidor Isaac Rabi
"for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949
Hideki Yukawa
"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955
Polykarp Kusch
"for his precision determination of the magnetic moment of the electron"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957
Tsung-Dao Lee
"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975
James Rainwater
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
Horst L. Störmer
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1934
Harold C. Urey
"for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
Dickinson W. Richards
"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1931
Nicholas Murray Butler
"for their assiduous effort to revive the ideal of peace and to rekindle the spirit of peace in their own nation and in the whole of mankind"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1996
William Vickrey
"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1999
Robert Mundell
"for his analysis of monetary and fiscal policy under different exchange rate regimes and his analysis of optimum currency areas"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000
Eric Kandel
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004
Richard Axel
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2006
Edmund S. Phelps
"for his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Martin Chalfie
"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017
Joachim Frank
"for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution"

Columbia University Division, Cardio-Pulmonary Laboratory, Bellevue Hospital, New York, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
André F. Cournand
"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922
Niels Bohr
"for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1920
August Krogh
"for his discovery of the capillary motor regulating mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1926
Johannes Fibiger
"for his discovery of the Spiroptera carcinoma"

Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA (8)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967
Hans Bethe
"for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1982
Kenneth G. Wilson
"for his theory for critical phenomena in connection with phase transitions"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996
David M. Lee
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996
Robert C. Richardson
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946
James B. Sumner
"for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1955
Vincent du Vigneaud
"for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981
Roald Hoffmann
"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
Robert W. Holley
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019
William G. Kaelin Jr
"for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability"

Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, London, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1947
Edward V. Appleton
"for his investigations of the physics of the upper atmosphere especially for the discovery of the so-called Appleton layer"

Digital Pathways, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Melvin Schwartz
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

Drew University, Madison, NJ, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015
William C. Campbell
"for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites"

Du Pont, Wilmington, DE, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Charles J. Pedersen
"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
Robert J. Lefkowitz
"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Paul Modrich
"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"

École municipale de physique et de chimie industrielles (Municipal School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry), Paris, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903
Pierre Curie
"in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel"

École Nationale Supérieur des Mines de Paris, Paris, France (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1988
Maurice Allais
"for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"

École Normale Supérieure, Paris, France (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1966
Alfred Kastler
"for the discovery and development of optical methods for studying Hertzian resonances in atoms"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
Claude Cohen-Tannoudji
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012
Serge Haroche
"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018
Gérard Mourou
"for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses"

École Polytechnique, Paris, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1903
Henri Becquerel
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity"

École Supérieure de Physique et Chimie, Paris, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992
Georges Charpak
"for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"

Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917
Charles Glover Barkla
"for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954
Max Born
"for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"

Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), Zurich, Switzerland (4)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1939
Leopold Ruzicka
"for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975
Vladimir Prelog
"for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1991
Richard R. Ernst
"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
Kurt Wüthrich
"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"

Enrico Fermi Institute, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008
Yoichiro Nambu
"for the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics"

Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, Minneapolis, MN, USA (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004
Edward C. Prescott
"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988
Leon M. Lederman
"for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"

Finsen Medical Light Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1903
Niels Ryberg Finsen
"in recognition of his contribution to the treatment of diseases, especially lupus vulgaris, with concentrated light radiation, whereby he has opened a new avenue for medical science"

Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007
Peter Grünberg
"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

Francis Crick Institute, London, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019
Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe
"for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability"

Francis Crick Institute, Hertfordshire, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Tomas Lindahl
"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"

Frankfurt-on-the-Main University, Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914
Max von Laue
"for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals"

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1990
E. Donnall Thomas
"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001
Leland Hartwell
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004
Linda B. Buck
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"

Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin, Germany (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986
Ernst Ruska
"for his fundamental work in electron optics, and for the design of the first electron microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2007
Gerhard Ertl
"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"

General Electric Company, Schenectady, NY, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973
Ivar Giaever
"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1932
Irving Langmuir
"for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"

George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USA (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2002
Vernon L. Smith
"for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis, especially in the study of alternative market mechanisms"

German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008
Harald zur Hausen
"for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
Stefan W. Hell
"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1938
Corneille Heymans
"for the discovery of the role played by the sinus and aortic mechanisms in the regulation of respiration"

Gladstone Institutes, San Francisco, CA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Shinya Yamanaka
"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

Glynn Research Laboratories, Bodmin, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978
Peter Mitchell
"for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"

Goettingen University, Göttingen, Germany (5)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925
James Franck
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910
Otto Wallach
"in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1925
Richard Zsigmondy
"for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used, which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1928
Adolf Windaus
"for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Paul Ehrlich
"in recognition of their work on immunity"

Göteborg University, Gothenburg, Sweden (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000
Arvid Carlsson
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

Graz University, Graz, Austria (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1923
Fritz Pregl
"for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936
Otto Loewi
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

Greifswald University, Greifswald, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1919
Johannes Stark
"for his discovery of the Doppler effect in canal rays and the splitting of spectral lines in electric fields"

Groningen University, Groningen, the Netherlands (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1953
Frits Zernike
"for his demonstration of the phase contrast method, especially for his invention of the phase contrast microscope"

Gurdon Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Sir John B. Gurdon
"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

Halle University, Halle, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925
Gustav Hertz
"for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"

Harvard Business School, Boston, MA, USA (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012
Alvin E. Roth
"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA (7)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Fritz Lipmann
"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
John F. Enders
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
Baruj Benacerraf
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
David H. Hubel
"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1981
Torsten N. Wiesel
"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Jack W. Szostak
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019
William G. Kaelin Jr
"for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability"

Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, USA (28)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1946
Percy W. Bridgman
"for the invention of an apparatus to produce extremely high pressures, and for the discoveries he made therewith in the field of high pressure physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952
E. M. Purcell
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965
Julian Schwinger
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977
John H. van Vleck
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979
Steven Weinberg
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981
Nicolaas Bloembergen
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989
Norman F. Ramsey
"for the invention of the separated oscillatory fields method and its use in the hydrogen maser and other atomic clocks"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1914
Theodore W. Richards
"in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1965
Robert B. Woodward
"for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1976
William Lipscomb
"for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986
Dudley R. Herschbach
"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1990
Elias James Corey
"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
George R. Minot
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
William P. Murphy
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1961
Georg von Békésy
"for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
James Watson
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964
Konrad Bloch
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
George Wald
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1950
Ralph Bunche
"for his work as mediator in Palestine in 1948-1949"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1971
Simon Kuznets
"for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1972
Kenneth J. Arrow
"for their pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1973
Wassily Leontief
"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
Roy J. Glauber
"for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012
Alvin E. Roth
"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
Martin Karplus
"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2019
Michael Kremer
"for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty"

Harvard University, Biological Laboratories, Cambridge, MA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980
Walter Gilbert
"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

Harvard University, Lyman Laboratory, Cambridge, MA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979
Sheldon Glashow
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008
Makoto Kobayashi
"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Akira Suzuki
"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, N/A (11)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988
Johann Deisenhofer
"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999
Günter Blobel
"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003
Roderick MacKinnon
"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Mario R. Capecchi
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Roger Y. Tsien
"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Jack W. Szostak
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Thomas A. Steitz
"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
Robert J. Lefkowitz
"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
Randy W. Schekman
"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
Thomas C. Südhof
"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017
Michael Rosbash
"for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm"

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Durham, NC, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Paul Modrich
"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"

Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Chevy Chase, MD, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019
William G. Kaelin Jr
"for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability"

I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G., Mannheim-Rheinau, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931
Friedrich Bergius
"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

I.G. Farbenindustrie A.G., Heidelberg, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931
Carl Bosch
"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973
Leo Esaki
"for their experimental discoveries regarding tunneling phenomena in semiconductors and superconductors, respectively"

IBM Zurich Research Laboratory, Rüschlikon, Switzerland (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986
Gerd Binnig
"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986
Heinrich Rohrer
"for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987
J. Georg Bednorz
"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987
K. Alex Müller
"for their important break-through in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"

Imperial Cancer Research Fund, London, United Kingdom (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001
Tim Hunt
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2001
Sir Paul Nurse
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"

Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratory, London, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
Renato Dulbecco
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

Imperial College, London, United Kingdom (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971
Dennis Gabor
"for his invention and development of the holographic method"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979
Abdus Salam
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969
Derek Barton
"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973
Geoffrey Wilkinson
"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946
Hermann J. Muller
"for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009
Elinor Ostrom
"for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"

Innsbruck University, Innsbruck, Austria (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936
Victor F. Hess
"for his discovery of cosmic radiation"

Institut du Radium, Paris, France (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935
Frédéric Joliot
"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1935
Irène Joliot-Curie
"in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"

Institut Français du Pétrole, Rueil-Malmaison, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005
Yves Chauvin
"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (5)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1907
Alphonse Laveran
"in recognition of his work on the role played by protozoa in causing diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Ilya Mechnikov
"in recognition of their work on immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965
François Jacob
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965
André Lwoff
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965
Jacques Monod
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"

Institut Pasteur, Tunis, Tunisia (1)



Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1957
Chen Ning Yang
"for their penetrating investigation of the so-called parity laws which has led to important discoveries regarding the elementary particles"

Institute for Biochemical Research, Buenos Aires, Argentina (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1970
Luis Leloir
"for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"

Institute for Chemical Physics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (now Russia) (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956
Nikolay Semenov
"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

Institute for Infectious Diseases, Berlin, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1905
Robert Koch
"for his investigations and discoveries in relation to tuberculosis"

Institute of Cell Biology of the C.N.R., Rome, Italy (1)



Institute of Physical Chemistry, Cambridge, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967
Ronald G.W. Norrish
"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

Institute of Technology, Milan, Italy (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963
Giulio Natta
"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

Instituto de Biologia y Medicina Experimental (Institute for Biology and Experimental Medicine), Buenos Aires, Argentina (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947
Bernardo Houssay
"for his discovery of the part played by the hormone of the anterior pituitary lobe in the metabolism of sugar"

International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste, Italy (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979
Abdus Salam
"for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"

Istituto Superiore di Sanità (Chief Institute of Public Health), Rome, Italy (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1957
Daniel Bovet
"for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"

Jackson Laboratory, Bar Harbor, ME, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
George D. Snell
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

Janelia Research Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, VA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
Eric Betzig
"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Adam G. Riess
"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019
Gregg L. Semenza
"for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability"

Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Daniel Nathans
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978
Hamilton O. Smith
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003
Peter Agre
"for the discovery of water channels"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Carol W. Greider
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Fritz-Haber-Institut) für physikalische Chemie und Electrochemie, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918
Fritz Haber
"for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck Institut) für Chemie, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1944
Otto Hahn
"for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck Institut) für Medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938
Richard Kuhn
"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Biochemie, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany (1)



Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Biologie, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931
Otto Warburg
"for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"

Kaiser-Wilhelm-Institut (now Max-Planck-Institut) für Physik, Berlin, Germany (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921
Albert Einstein
"for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1936
Peter Debye
"for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"

Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Ragnar Granit
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Ulf von Euler
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982
Sune K. Bergström
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982
Bengt I. Samuelsson
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

Karolinska Institutet, Nobel Medical Institute, Stockholm, Sweden (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1955
Hugo Theorell
"for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"

Kiel University, Kiel, Germany (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1905
Philipp Lenard
"for his work on cathode rays"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1950
Otto Diels
"for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Otto Meyerhof
"for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"

Kitasato University, Tokyo, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2015
Satoshi Ōmura
"for their discoveries concerning a novel therapy against infections caused by roundworm parasites"

Königliches Institut für experimentelle Therapie (Royal Institute for Experimental Therapy), Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908
Paul Ehrlich
"in recognition of their work on immunity"

Konrad-Lorenz-Institut der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissen­schaften, Forschungsstelle für Ethologie, Altenberg; Grünau im Almtal, Austria (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Konrad Lorenz
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

Kyoto Imperial University, Kyoto, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1949
Hideki Yukawa
"for his prediction of the existence of mesons on the basis of theoretical work on nuclear forces"

Kyoto Sangyo University, Kyoto, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008
Toshihide Maskawa
"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan (3)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981
Kenichi Fukui
"for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2012
Shinya Yamanaka
"for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018
Tasuku Honjo
"for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation"

Laboratories of the Division of Medicine and Public Health, Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1951
Max Theiler
"for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"

Laboratorium der Farben-Fabriken J.R. Geigy A.G. (Laboratory of the J.R. Geigy Dye-Factory Co.), Basel, Switzerland (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1948
Paul Müller
"for his discovery of the high efficiency of DDT as a contact poison against several arthropods"

Landwirtschaftliche Hochschule (Agricultural College), Berlin, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1907
Eduard Buchner
"for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"

Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Saul Perlmutter
"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1902
Hendrik A. Lorentz
"in recognition of the extraordinary service they rendered by their researches into the influence of magnetism upon radiation phenomena"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
"for his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1924
Willem Einthoven
"for his discovery of the mechanism of the electrocardiogram"

Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932
Werner Heisenberg
"for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909
Wilhelm Ostwald
"in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"

LIGO/VIRGO Collaboration, N/A (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Rainer Weiss
"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Barry C. Barish
"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Kip S. Thorne
"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"

Liverpool University, Liverpool, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1935
James Chadwick
"for the discovery of the neutron"

Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, USSR (now Russia) (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Igor Y. Tamm
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Il´ja M. Frank
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956
Nikolay Semenov
"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom (1)



London University, London, United Kingdom (6)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1928
Owen Willans Richardson
"for his work on the thermionic phenomenon and especially for the discovery of the law named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1937
George Paget Thomson
"for their experimental discovery of the diffraction of electrons by crystals"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929
Arthur Harden
"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922
Archibald V. Hill
"for his discovery relating to the production of heat in the muscle"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Sir Alexander Fleming
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
Maurice Wilkins
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

London University, King's College Hospital Medical School, London, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
Sir James W. Black
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

Long Term Capital Management, Greenwich, CT, USA (1)



Ludwig-Maximilians- Universität, Munich, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
Theodor W. Hänsch
"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

Madrid University, Madrid, Spain (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906
Santiago Ramón y Cajal
"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

Mainz University, Mainz, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1956
Werner Forssmann
"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"

Marburg University, Marburg, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1901
Emil von Behring
"for his work on serum therapy, especially its application against diphtheria, by which he has opened a new road in the domain of medical science and thereby placed in the hands of the physician a victorious weapon against illness and deaths"

Marconi Wireless Telegraph Co. Ltd., London, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909
Guglielmo Marconi
"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL), Woods Hole, MA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Osamu Shimomura
"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Fritz Lipmann
"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Jack W. Szostak
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA, USA (21)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964
Charles H. Townes
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976
Samuel C.C. Ting
"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990
Jerome I. Friedman
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990
Henry W. Kendall
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994
Clifford G. Shull
"for the development of the neutron diffraction technique"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995
Mario J. Molina
"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969
Salvador E. Luria
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
David Baltimore
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1987
Susumu Tonegawa
"for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1970
Paul A. Samuelson
"for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1985
Franco Modigliani
"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Wolfgang Ketterle
"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
H. Robert Horvitz
"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004
Frank Wilczek
"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2005
Richard R. Schrock
"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2017
Rainer Weiss
"for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2019
Abhijit Banerjee
"for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2019
Esther Duflo
"for their experimental approach to alleviating global poverty"

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Center for Cancer Research, Cambridge, MA, USA (1)



Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Göttingen, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
Stefan W. Hell
"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

Max-Planck-Institut für Biochemie, Martinsried, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988
Robert Huber
"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysik, Frankfurt-on-the-Main, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988
Hartmut Michel
"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

Max-Planck-Institut für Biophysikalische Chemie, Göttingen, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991
Erwin Neher
"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, Mainz, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995
Paul J. Crutzen
"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

Max-Planck-Institut für Entwicklungsbiologie, Tübingen, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Stuttgart, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1985
Klaus von Klitzing
"for the discovery of the quantized Hall effect"

Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung (Max-Planck-Institute for Carbon Research), Mülheim/Ruhr, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1963
Karl Ziegler
"for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"

Max-Planck-Institut für medizinische Forschung, Heidelberg, Germany (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954
Walther Bothe
"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1991
Bert Sakmann
"for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"

Max-Planck-Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Göttingen, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967
Manfred Eigen
"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

Max-Planck-Institut für Quantenoptik, Garching, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
Theodor W. Hänsch
"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

Max-Planck-Institut für Zellchemie, Munich, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964
Feodor Lynen
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"

Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Edward C. Kendall
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950
Philip S. Hench
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"

McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1994
Bertram N. Brockhouse
"for the development of neutron spectroscopy"

Meijo University, Nagoya, Japan (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Isamu Akasaki
"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019
Akira Yoshino
"for the development of lithium-ion batteries"

Military Medical Academy, St. Petersburg, Russia (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1904
Ivan Pavlov
"in recognition of his work on the physiology of digestion, through which knowledge on vital aspects of the subject has been transformed and enlarged"

MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, United Kingdom (10)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980
Frederick Sanger
"for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962
Max F. Perutz
"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962
John C. Kendrew
"for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982
Aaron Klug
"for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997
John E. Walker
"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1962
Francis Crick
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984
César Milstein
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan
"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017
Richard Henderson
"for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018
Sir Gregory P. Winter
"for the phage display of peptides and antibodies"

Munich University, Munich, Germany (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1901
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905
Adolf von Baeyer
"in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915
Richard Willstätter
"for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1927
Heinrich Wieland
"for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"

Munster University, Munster, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939
Gerhard Domagk
"for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil"

Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan (3)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001
Ryoji Noyori
"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Isamu Akasaki
"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Hiroshi Amano
"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

Nancy University, Nancy, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912
Victor Grignard
"for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the progress of organic chemistry"

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
John C. Mather
"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

National Institute for Medical Research, London, United Kingdom (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952
Archer J.P. Martin
"for their invention of partition chromatography"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936
Sir Henry Dale
"for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"

National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994
Martin Rodbell
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
John L. Hall
"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012
David J. Wineland
"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
William D. Phillips
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA (4)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972
Christian Anfinsen
"for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
Marshall W. Nirenberg
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Julius Axelrod
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976
D. Carleton Gajdusek
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1971
Gerhard Herzberg
"for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"

Neurological Institute, Lisbon, Portugal (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949
Egas Moniz
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"

New England Biolabs, Beverly, MA, USA (1)



New York University, New York, NY, USA (2)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2003
Robert F. Engle III
"for methods of analyzing economic time series with time-varying volatility (ARCH)"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2011
Thomas J. Sargent
"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"

New York University, College of Medicine, New York, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Severo Ochoa
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

NHMRC Helicobacter pylori Research Laboratory, QEII Medical Centre, Nedlands, Australia (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005
Barry J. Marshall
"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975
Aage N. Bohr
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

Nordita, Copenhagen, Denmark (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975
Ben R. Mottelson
"for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"

Northwestern University, Evanston, IL, USA (3)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998
John Pople
"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
Sir J. Fraser Stoddart
"for the design and synthesis of molecular machines"

Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014
May-Britt Moser
"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014
Edvard I. Moser
"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"

NYU Stern School of Business, New York, NY, USA (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2018
Paul M. Romer
"for integrating technological innovations into long-run macroeconomic analysis"

P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, Russia (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003
Vitaly L. Ginzburg
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow, USSR (now Russia) (5)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Pavel A. Cherenkov
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Igor Y. Tamm
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964
Nicolay G. Basov
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964
Aleksandr M. Prokhorov
"for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maser-laser principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958
Il´ja M. Frank
"for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"

Parker Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, San Francisco, CA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018
James P. Allison
"for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation"

Pavia University, Pavia, Italy (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1906
Camillo Golgi
"in recognition of their work on the structure of the nervous system"

Peter Brent Brigham Hospital, Boston, MA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
William P. Murphy
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

Polarographic Institute of the Czechoslovak Academy of Science, Prague, Czechoslovakia (now Czech Republic) (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1959
Jaroslav Heyrovsky
"for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"

Polytechnic Institute, Copenhagen, Denmark (1)



Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, USA (15)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945
Wolfgang Pauli
"for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli Principle"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963
Eugene Wigner
"for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980
Val Fitch
"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993
Russell A. Hulse
"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1993
Joseph H. Taylor Jr.
"for the discovery of a new type of pulsar, a discovery that has opened up new possibilities for the study of gravitation"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
Daniel C. Tsui
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1995
Eric F. Wieschaus
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1979
Sir Arthur Lewis
"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994
John F. Nash Jr.
"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2002
Daniel Kahneman
"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2008
Paul Krugman
"for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2011
Christopher A. Sims
"for their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
F. Duncan M. Haldane
"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019
James Peebles
"for theoretical discoveries in physical cosmology"

Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
Herbert C. Brown
"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Ei-ichi Negishi
"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

Queen's University, Kingston, Canada (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015
Arthur B. McDonald
"for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass"

Regulation of Retroviral Infections Unit, Virology Department, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

Research Division of Infectious Diseases, Children's Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
John F. Enders
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
Thomas H. Weller
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität, Bonn, Germany (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994
Reinhard Selten
"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

Rice University, Houston, TX, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996
Robert F. Curl Jr.
"for their discovery of fullerenes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996
Richard E. Smalley
"for their discovery of fullerenes"

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, Princeton, NJ, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946
John H. Northrop
"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1946
Wendell M. Stanley
"for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"

Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, New York, NY, USA (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1912
Alexis Carrel
"in recognition of his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930
Karl Landsteiner
"for his discovery of human blood groups"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Herbert S. Gasser
"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Edward Tatum
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"

Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA (12)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972
Stanford Moore
"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972
William H. Stein
"for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1984
Bruce Merrifield
"for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966
Peyton Rous
"for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967
Keffer Hartline
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972
Gerald M. Edelman
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
Christian de Duve
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1999
Günter Blobel
"for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000
Paul Greengard
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2003
Roderick MacKinnon
"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Ralph M. Steinman
"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017
Michael W. Young
"for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm"

Rome University, Rome, Italy (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1938
Enrico Fermi
"for his demonstrations of the existence of new radioactive elements produced by neutron irradiation, and for his related discovery of nuclear reactions brought about by slow neutrons"

Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn (Scotland), United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1952
Richard L.M. Synge
"for their invention of partition chromatography"

Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970
Hannes Alfvén
"for fundamental work and discoveries in magnetohydro-dynamics with fruitful applications in different parts of plasma physics"

Royal Institution of Great Britain, London, United Kingdom (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904
Lord Rayleigh
"for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1967
George Porter
"for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of very short pulses of energy"

Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952
Selman A. Waksman
"for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"

Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1943
Edward A. Doisy
"for his discovery of the chemical nature of vitamin K"

Semiconductor Laboratory of Beckman Instruments, Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
William B. Shockley
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

Sheffield University, Sheffield, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953
Hans Krebs
"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"

Shimadzu Corp., Kyoto, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
Koichi Tanaka
"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

Sorbonne University, Paris, France (6)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1911
Marie Curie
"in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable element"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908
Gabriel Lippmann
"for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1926
Jean Baptiste Perrin
"for his work on the discontinuous structure of matter, and especially for his discovery of sedimentation equilibrium"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906
Henri Moissan
"in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1913
Charles Richet
"in recognition of his work on anaphylaxis"

The Nobel Peace Prize 1907
Louis Renault
"for his decisive influence upon the conduct and outcome of the Hague and Geneva Conferences"

Sorbonne University, Institut Henri Poincaré, Paris, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1929
Louis de Broglie
"for his discovery of the wave nature of electrons"

Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Adam G. Riess
"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996
Peter C. Doherty
"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

Staatliches Institut für makromolekulare Chemie (State Research Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry), Freiburg, Breisgau, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953
Hermann Staudinger
"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"

Standard Telecommunication Laboratories, Harlow, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2009
Charles K. Kao
"for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication"

Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Stanford, CA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976
Burton Richter
"for their pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"

Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA (18)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952
Felix Bloch
"for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1955
Willis E. Lamb
"for his discoveries concerning the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961
Robert Hofstadter
"for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981
Arthur L. Schawlow
"for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990
Richard E. Taylor
"for their pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995
Martin L. Perl
"for the discovery of the tau lepton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996
Douglas D. Osheroff
"for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997
Steven Chu
"for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1998
Robert B. Laughlin
"for their discovery of a new form of quantum fluid with fractionally charged excitations"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1974
Paul J. Flory
"for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the macromolecules"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980
Paul Berg
"for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1983
Henry Taube
"for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959
Arthur Kornberg
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1990
William F. Sharpe
"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006
Roger D. Kornberg
"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
Thomas C. Südhof
"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2014
William E. Moerner
"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006
Andrew Z. Fire
"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012
Brian Kobilka
"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
Michael Levitt
"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Stockholm School of Economics, Stockholm, Sweden (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1977
Bertil Ohlin
"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"

Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden (3)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1903
Svante Arrhenius
"in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his electrolytic theory of dissociation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1929
Hans von Euler-Chelpin
"for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943
George de Hevesy
"for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"

Strasbourg University, Strasbourg, Germany (now France) (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909
Ferdinand Braun
"in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"

SUNY Health Science Center, Brooklyn, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Robert F. Furchgott
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

Swedish Gas-Accumulator Co., Lidingö, Stockholm, Sweden (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1912
Gustaf Dalén
"for his invention of automatic regulators for use in conjunction with gas accumulators for illuminating lighthouses and buoys"

Szeged University, Szeged, Hungary (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1937
Albert Szent-Györgyi
"for his discoveries in connection with the biological combustion processes, with special reference to vitamin C and the catalysis of fumaric acid"

Technical University, Munich, Germany (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1961
Rudolf Mössbauer
"for his researches concerning the resonance absorption of gamma radiation and his discovery in this connection of the effect which bears his name"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1973
Ernst Otto Fischer
"for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called sandwich compounds"

Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel (3)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
Aaron Ciechanover
"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
Avram Hershko
"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011
Dan Shechtman
"for the discovery of quasicrystals"

Technische Hochschule (Institute of Technology), Munich, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1930
Hans Fischer
"for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of haemin"

Texas Instruments, Dallas, TX, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Jack Kilby
"for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit"

The Institute for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, PA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976
Baruch S. Blumberg
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"

The Medical Foundation of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985
Herbert A. Hauptman
"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

The Molecular Sciences Institute, Berkeley, CA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
Sydney Brenner
"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

The Netherlands School of Economics, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1969
Jan Tinbergen
"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"

The Salk Institute, San Diego, CA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Roger Guillemin
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA, USA (3)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2001
Barry Sharpless
"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
Kurt Wüthrich
"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Bruce A. Beutler
"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

The Wellcome Research Laboratories, Beckenham, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982
John R. Vane
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"

The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2002
John E. Sulston
"for their discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"

Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2016
Yoshinori Ohsumi
"for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy"

Tokyo University of Education, Tokyo, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965
Sin-Itiro Tomonaga
"for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"

Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), Toulouse, France (1)



Toulouse University, Toulouse, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1912
Paul Sabatier
"for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"

Trinity College, Dublin, Ireland (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951
Ernest T.S. Walton
"for their pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"

Trinity College, Cambridge, United Kingdom (1)



Tufts University, Medford, MA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1979
Allan M. Cormack
"for the development of computer assisted tomography"

Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/THALES, Orsay, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007
Albert Fert
"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

Université Paris-Sud, Orsay, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2007
Albert Fert
"for the discovery of Giant Magnetoresistance"

Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain, Belgium (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
Albert Claude
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
Christian de Duve
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

Université de Paris, Laboratoire Immuno-Hématologie, Paris, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980
Jean Dausset
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"

Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
Martin Karplus
"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977
Ilya Prigogine
"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013
François Englert
"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

Université Louis Pasteur, Strasbourg, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Jean-Marie Lehn
"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

University College, London, United Kingdom (6)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915
William Bragg
"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1904
Sir William Ramsay
"in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination of their place in the periodic system"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960
Peter Medawar
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
Andrew Huxley
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970
Sir Bernard Katz
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmitters in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2014
John O'Keefe
"for their discoveries of cells that constitute a positioning system in the brain"

University College, Liverpool, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1902
Ronald Ross
"for his work on malaria, by which he has shown how it enters the organism and thereby has laid the foundation for successful research on this disease and methods of combating it"

University of Bonn, Bonn, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989
Wolfgang Paul
"for the development of the ion trap technique"

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993
Michael Smith
"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"

University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USA (4)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1960
Willard F. Libby
"for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other branches of science"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1987
Donald J. Cram
"for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1997
Paul D. Boyer
"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2012
Lloyd S. Shapley
"for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"

University of California, Berkeley, CA, USA (18)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1939
Ernest Lawrence
"for the invention and development of the cyclotron and for results obtained with it, especially with regard to artificial radioactive elements"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959
Emilio Segrè
"for their discovery of the antiproton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959
Owen Chamberlain
"for their discovery of the antiproton"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960
Donald A. Glaser
"for the invention of the bubble chamber"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1968
Luis Alvarez
"for his decisive contributions to elementary particle physics, in particular the discovery of a large number of resonance states, made possible through his development of the technique of using hydrogen bubble chamber and data analysis"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1949
William F. Giauque
"for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour of substances at extremely low temperatures"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
Edwin M. McMillan
"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1951
Glenn T. Seaborg
"for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961
Melvin Calvin
"for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986
Yuan T. Lee
"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1983
Gerard Debreu
"for having incorporated new analytical methods into economic theory and for his rigorous reformulation of the theory of general equilibrium"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1994
John C. Harsanyi
"for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2000
Daniel L. McFadden
"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing discrete choice"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2006
George F. Smoot
"for their discovery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2009
Oliver E. Williamson
"for his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011
Saul Perlmutter
"for the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the Universe through observations of distant supernovae"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
Randy W. Schekman
"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

University of California, Irvine, CA, USA (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995
Frederick Reines
"for the detection of the neutrino"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1995
F. Sherwood Rowland
"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004
Irwin Rose
"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

University of California, Santa Barbara, CA, USA (5)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998
Walter Kohn
"for his development of the density-functional theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000
Herbert Kroemer
"for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and opto-electronics"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
Alan Heeger
"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2004
Finn E. Kydland
"for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2014
Shuji Nakamura
"for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources"

University of California, San Diego, CA, USA (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963
Maria Goeppert Mayer
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2003
Clive W.J. Granger
"for methods of analyzing economic time series with common trends (cointegration)"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2008
Roger Y. Tsien
"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009
Elizabeth H. Blackburn
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"

University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, USA (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
J. Michael Bishop
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989
Harold E. Varmus
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997
Stanley B. Prusiner
"for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"

University of California School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Louis J. Ignarro
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

University of California, Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Santa Barbara, CA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004
David J. Gross
"for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"

University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom (18)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906
J.J. Thomson
"in recognition of the great merits of his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927
C.T.R. Wilson
"for his method of making the paths of electrically charged particles visible by condensation of vapour"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933
Paul A.M. Dirac
"for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973
Brian D. Josephson
"for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effects"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974
Martin Ryle
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974
Antony Hewish
"for their pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1977
Sir Nevill F. Mott
"for their fundamental theoretical investigations of the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1922
Francis W. Aston
"for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1957
Lord Todd
"for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1958
Frederick Sanger
"for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929
Sir Frederick Hopkins
"for his discovery of the growth-stimulating vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932
Edgar Adrian
"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1963
Alan Hodgkin
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1977
James E. Meade
"for their pathbreaking contribution to the theory of international trade and international capital movements"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1984
Richard Stone
"for having made fundamental contributions to the development of systems of national accounts and hence greatly improved the basis for empirical economic analysis"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1996
James A. Mirrlees
"for their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2010
Robert G. Edwards
"for the development of in vitro fertilization"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019
Didier Queloz
"for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star"

University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA (18)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1907
Albert A. Michelson
"for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927
Arthur H. Compton
"for his discovery of the effect named after him"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1980
James Cronin
"for the discovery of violations of fundamental symmetry principles in the decay of neutral K-mesons"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1983
Subramanyan Chandrasekhar
"for his theoretical studies of the physical processes of importance to the structure and evolution of the stars"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1966
Robert S. Mulliken
"for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the molecular orbital method"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1976
Milton Friedman
"for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1979
Theodore W. Schultz
"for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1982
George J. Stigler
"for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1990
Merton H. Miller
"for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1991
Ronald H. Coase
"for his discovery and clarification of the significance of transaction costs and property rights for the institutional structure and functioning of the economy"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1992
Gary Becker
"for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1993
Robert W. Fogel
"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1995
Robert E. Lucas Jr.
"for having developed and applied the hypothesis of rational expectations, and thereby having transformed macroeconomic analysis and deepened our understanding of economic policy"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2000
James J. Heckman
"for his development of theory and methods for analyzing selective samples"

University of Chicago, Ben May Laboratory for Cancer Research, Chicago, IL, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1966
Charles B. Huggins
"for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"

University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989
Thomas R. Cech
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012
David J. Wineland
"for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"

University of Colorado, JILA, Boulder, CO, USA (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Eric Cornell
"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2001
Carl Wieman
"for the achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in dilute gases of alkali atoms, and for early fundamental studies of the properties of the condensates"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005
John L. Hall
"for their contributions to the development of laser-based precision spectroscopy, including the optical frequency comb technique"

University of Delaware, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2010
Richard F. Heck
"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013
Peter Higgs
"for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"

University of Freiburg, Breisgau, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1953
Hermann Staudinger
"for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"

University of Freiburg im Breisgau, Breisgau, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1935
Hans Spemann
"for his discovery of the organizer effect in embryonic development"

University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019
Michel Mayor
"for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2019
Didier Queloz
"for the discovery of an exoplanet orbiting a solar-type star"

University of Grenoble, Grenoble, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1970
Louis Néel
"for fundamental work and discoveries concerning antiferromagnetism and ferrimagnetism which have led to important applications in solid state physics"

University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
Bernard L. Feringa
"for the design and synthesis of molecular machines"

University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany (7)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954
Walther Bothe
"for the coincidence method and his discoveries made therewith"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1963
J. Hans D. Jensen
"for their discoveries concerning nuclear shell structure"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931
Carl Bosch
"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1931
Friedrich Bergius
"in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938
Richard Kuhn
"for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979
Georg Wittig
"for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1910
Albrecht Kossel
"in recognition of the contributions to our knowledge of cell chemistry made through his work on proteins, including the nucleic substances"

University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1945
Artturi Virtanen
"for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"

University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, USA (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956
John Bardeen
"for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972
John Bardeen
"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Paul C. Lauterbur
"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003
Anthony J. Leggett
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"

University of Jerusalem, Center for RationalityHebrew, Jerusalem, Israel (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2005
Robert J. Aumann
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"

University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2017
Jacques Dubochet
"for developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution"

University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949
Egas Moniz
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of leucotomy in certain psychoses"

University of Maine, Maine, ME, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017
Jeffrey C. Hall
"for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm"

University of Manchester, Manchester, United Kingdom (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010
Andre Geim
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2010
Konstantin Novoselov
"for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene"

University of Maryland, Department of Economics and School of Public Policy, College Park, MD, USA (1)



The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2005
Thomas C. Schelling
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"

University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006
Craig C. Mello
"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"

University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018
Gérard Mourou
"for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses"

University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA (1)



University of Missouri, Columbia, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2018
George P. Smith
"for the phage display of peptides and antibodies"

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Oliver Smithies
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2015
Aziz Sancar
"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"

University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003
Sir Peter Mansfield
"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"

University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway (3)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1969
Odd Hassel
"for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1969
Ragnar Frisch
"for having developed and applied dynamic models for the analysis of economic processes"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1989
Trygve Haavelmo
"for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"

University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom (9)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921
Frederick Soddy
"for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1947
Sir Robert Robinson
"for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1956
Sir Cyril Hinshelwood
"for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1932
Sir Charles Sherrington
"for their discoveries regarding the functions of neurons"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Ernst B. Chain
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945
Sir Howard Florey
"for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972
Rodney R. Porter
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Nikolaas Tinbergen
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2019
Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe
"for their discoveries of how cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability"

University of Oxford, Royal Society, Oxford, United Kingdom (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1964
Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
"for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"

University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1972
Robert Schrieffer
"for their jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1980
Lawrence R. Klein
"for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
Alan MacDiarmid
"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002
Raymond Davis Jr.
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1934
George H. Whipple
"for their discoveries concerning liver therapy in cases of anaemia"

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1994
George A. Olah
"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013
Arieh Warshel
"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Jules A. Hoffmann
"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016
Jean-Pierre Sauvage
"for the design and synthesis of molecular machines"

University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1975
John Cornforth
"for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996
Sir Harold Kroto
"for their discovery of fullerenes"

University of Texas, Austin, TX, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977
Ilya Prigogine
"for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2019
John B. Goodenough
"for the development of lithium-ion batteries"

University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2018
James P. Allison
"for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation"

University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, TX, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998
Ferid Murad
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA (5)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1988
Johann Deisenhofer
"for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985
Michael S. Brown
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985
Joseph L. Goldstein
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994
Alfred G. Gilman
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011
Bruce A. Beutler
"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2002
Masatoshi Koshiba
"for pioneering contributions to astrophysics, in particular for the detection of cosmic neutrinos"

University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2015
Takaaki Kajita
"for the discovery of neutrino oscillations, which shows that neutrinos have mass"

University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada (3)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1986
John C. Polanyi
"for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"

University of Tsukuba, Tokyo, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000
Hideki Shirakawa
"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2007
Mario R. Capecchi
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"

University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1989
Hans G. Dehmelt
"for the development of the ion trap technique"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992
Edmond H. Fischer
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1992
Edwin G. Krebs
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 2016
David J. Thouless
"for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter"

University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Canada (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2018
Donna Strickland
"for their method of generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses"

University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2005
Barry J. Marshall
"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"

University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958
Joshua Lederberg
"for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968
H. Gobind Khorana
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975
Howard M. Temin
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"

University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland (3)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1913
Alfred Werner
"in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1937
Paul Karrer
"for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1949
Walter Hess
"for his discovery of the functional organization of the interbrain as a coordinator of the activities of the internal organs"

University of Zurich, Institute of Experimental Immunology, Zurich, Switzerland (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1996
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"

Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden (5)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1924
Manne Siegbahn
"for his discoveries and research in the field of X-ray spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1981
Kai M. Siegbahn
"for his contribution to the development of high-resolution electron spectroscopy"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926
The Svedberg
"for his work on disperse systems"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1948
Arne Tiselius
"for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning the complex nature of the serum proteins"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1911
Allvar Gullstrand
"for his work on the dioptrics of the eye"

US Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985
Jerome Karle
"for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"

Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1999
Gerardus 't Hooft
"for elucidating the quantum structure of electroweak interactions in physics"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1929
Christiaan Eijkman
"for his discovery of the antineuritic vitamin"

Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1971
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.
"for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"

Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986
Stanley Cohen
"for their discoveries of growth factors"

Veterans Administration Hospital, Bronx, NY, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Rosalyn Yalow
"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"

Veterans Administration Hospital, New Orleans, LA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977
Andrew V. Schally
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"

Victoria University, Manchester, United Kingdom (3)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1915
Lawrence Bragg
"for their services in the analysis of crystal structure by means of X-rays"

The Nobel Prize in Physics 1948
Patrick M.S. Blackett
"for his development of the Wilson cloud chamber method, and his discoveries therewith in the fields of nuclear physics and cosmic radiation"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1908
Ernest Rutherford
"for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"

Vienna University, Vienna, Austria (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914
Robert Bárány
"for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1927
Julius Wagner-Jauregg
"for his discovery of the therapeutic value of malaria inoculation in the treatment of dementia paralytica"

Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
John B. Fenn
"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

Walter and Eliza Hall Institute for Medical Research, Melbourne, Australia (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1960
Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"

Washington University, St. Louis, MO, USA (4)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944
Joseph Erlanger
"for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947
Carl Cori
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947
Gerty Cori
"for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1993
Douglass C. North
"for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"

Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel (1)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Ada E. Yonath
"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

Wellcome Research Laboratories, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA (2)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
Gertrude B. Elion
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1988
George H. Hitchings
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"

Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1954
Frederick C. Robbins
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"

World Foundation for AIDS Research and Prevention, Paris, France (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008
Luc Montagnier
"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"

Würzburg University, Würzburg, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 1911
Wilhelm Wien
"for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat"

Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA (8)



The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1968
Lars Onsager
"for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989
Sidney Altman
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1975
Tjalling C. Koopmans
"for their contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1981
James Tobin
"for his analysis of financial markets and their relations to expenditure decisions, employment, production and prices"

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009
Thomas A. Steitz
"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2013
James E. Rothman
"for their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"

The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 2018
William D. Nordhaus
"for integrating climate change into long-run macroeconomic analysis"

Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974
George E. Palade
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"

Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics (YITP), Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physics 2008
Toshihide Maskawa
"for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in nature"

Zoologisches Institut der Universität München, Munich, Germany (1)



The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1973
Karl von Frisch
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"